Lubricants Info

API분류(API : American Petroleum Institue)

API(미국석유협회)에서는 1900년대 초부터 현재에 이르기까지 각 연대에 제작된 자동차 엔진에 주로 사용토록 추진되고 있는 엔진 윤활유의 성능을 표에 나와 있는 기호로 분류 표시하고 있는데, 크게 두 가지로 나누어 가솔린 엔진 오일은 두문자 ‘S’(Service Station Classification의 약자), 디젤 엔진 오일은 두문자 ‘C’(Commercial Classification의 약자)로 표시하며, 각 연대에 제작된 엔진에 사용할 수 있는 성능의 윤활유 등급을 A, B, C, D…등으로 표시하도록 하고 있다. 즉, 최근 모델의 엔진일수록 고속/고부하의 운전조건을 가지므로 이에 적합한 엔진오일은 이전의 등급에 비해 더욱 강화된 성능 기준에 합격한 오일을 말한다. 따라서 어느 제품이든 API 서비스 등급을 표시하기 위해서는 미국 석유 협회로부터의 공식적인 엔진 시험을 거쳐 각 등급기준에 합격한 후 그 표시 허가를 받아야만 한다.

성능에 의한 분류(API 성능분류)

SAE 10W, SAE 30, SAE 40 등과 같이 한 숫자 등급으로만 표시하는 제품을 말하며, 하기 점도분류표의 각 등급에 대해 요구되는 규격만을 만족하는 제품이다.

  • 가솔린 엔진오일
  • SA
    1900년
  • SB
    1930년
  • SC
    1964년
  • SD
    1968년
  • SE
    1972년
  • SF
    1980년
  • SG
    1989년
  • SH
    1993년
  • SJ
    1996년
  • SL
    2001년
  • SM
    2004년
  • SN
    2010년
  • 디젤 엔진오일
  • CA
    1900년
  • CB
    1949년
  • CC
    1961년
  • CD
    1955년
  • CD-Ⅱ
    1985년
  • CE
    1984년
  • CF-4
    1990년
  • CF/CF-2
    1994년
  • CG-4
    1995년
  • CH-4
    1998년
  • CI-4
    2002년
  • CJ-4
    2007년
  • CK-4 / FA-4
    2016년

API’S CERTIFICATION MARK AND SERVICE SYMBOL

identify quality motor oils for gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. Oils displaying these marks meet performance requirements set by U.S. and international vehicle and engine manufacturers and the lubricant industry. More than 500 companies worldwide participate in this voluntary program, which is backed by a marketplace sampling and testing program.

THE API CERTIFICATION MARK, ALSO KNOWN AS THE “STARBUSRST”

An oil displaying this mark meets the current engine protection standard and fuel economy requirements of the International Lubricant Standardization and Advisory Committee (ILSAC), a joint effort of U.S. and Japanese automobile manufacturers. Automobile manufacturers recommend oils that carry the API Certification Mark. See the ILSAC STANDARD FOR PASSENGER CAR ENGINE OILS chart on the next page for descriptions of current and obsolete ILSAC standards.

THE API SERVICE SYMBOL, ALSO KNOWN AS THE “DONUT”

  1. 01 PERFORMANCE LEVEL
    Gasoline engine oil categories (for cars, vans, and light trucks with gasoline engines): Oils designed for gasoline engine service fall under API’s “S” (Spark Ignited) categories. See inside for descriptions of current and obsolete API service categories. Diesel motor oil categories (for heavy-duty trucks and vehicles with diesel engines): Oils designed for diesel-engine service fall under API’s “C”(Compression Ignited) categories. See the GASOLINE ENGINES and DIESEL ENGINES charts on the next pages for descriptions of current and obsolete API service categories.
  2. 02 VISCOSITY GRADE
    The measure of an oil’s ability to flow at certain temperatures. Vehicle requirements may vary. Follow your vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations on SAE oil viscosity.
  3. 03 RESOURCE CONSERVING or ENERGY CONSERVING
    These designations apply to oils intended for gasoline-engine cars, vans, and light trucks. Widespread use of “Resource Conserving” or “Energy Conserving” oils may result in an overall savings of fuel in the vehicle fleet as a whole.
  4. 04 MULTIPLE PERFORMANCE LEVELS
    Oils designed for diesel engine service might also meet gasoline engine service. For these oils the designation is “C” category first followed by the “S” category. “C” category oils have been formulated primarily for diesel engines and may not provide all of the performance requirements consistent with vehicle manufacturers’ recommendations for gasoline-fueled engines.
  5. 05 THE API SERVICE SYMBOL WITH-CI-4PLUS
    The “CI-4 PLUS” designation identifies oils formulated to provide a higher level of protection against soot-related viscosity increase and viscosity loss due to shear in diesel engines. When originally introduced, CI-4 PLUS identified CI-4 oils meeting a higher level of performance. CJ-4 oils include all CI-4 PLUS performance requirements. CI-4 PLUS appears in the lower portion of the API Service Symbol “Donut.”

The current and previous ILSAC standards and API Service Categories are listed here. Vehicle owners should refer to their owner’s manuals before consulting these charts. Oils may have more than one performance level.
For automotive gasoline engines, the latest ILSAC standard or API Service Category includes the performance properties of each earlier category and can be used to service older engines where earlier category oils were recommended.

ILSAC STANDARD FOR PASSENGER CAR ENGINE OILS

    • Name
    • Status
    • Service
    • Name GF-5
    • Status Current
    • Service Introduced in October 2010, designed to provide improved high temperature deposit protection for pistons and turbochargers, more stringent sludge control, improved fuel economy, enhanced emission control system compatibility, seal compatibility, and protection of engines operating on ethanol-containing fuels up to E85.
    • Name GF-4
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service Use GF-5 where GF-4 is recommended.
    • Name GF-3
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service Use GF-5 where GF-3 is recommended.
    • Name GF-2
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service Use GF-5 where GF-2 is recommended.
    • Name GF-1
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service Use GF-5 where GF-1 is recommended.

GASOLINE ENGINES (FOLLOW YOUR VEHICLE MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS ON OIL PERFORMANCE LEVEL)

    • Category
    • Status
    • Service
    • Category SN
    • Status Current
    • Service Introduced in October 2010, designed to provide improved high temperature deposit protection for pistons, more stringent sludge control, and seal compatibility. API SN with Resource Conserving matches ILSAC GF-5 by combining API SN performance with improved fuel economy, turbocharger protection, emission control system compatibility, and protection of engines operating on ethanol-containing fuels up to E85.
    • Category SM
    • Status Current
    • Service For 2010 and older automotive engines.
    • Category SL
    • Status Current
    • Service For 2004 and older automotive engines.
    • Category SJ
    • Status Current
    • Service For 2001 and older automotive engines.
    • Category SH
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most gasoline-powered automotive engines built after 1996.
      May not provide adequate protection against build-up of engine sludge, oxidation, or wear.
    • Category SG
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most gasoline-powered automotive engines built after 1993.
      May not provide adequate protection against build-up of engine sludge, oxidation, or wear.
    • Category SF
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most gasoline-powered automotive engines built after 1988. May not provide adequate protection against build-up of engine sludge.
    • Category SE
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most gasoline-powered automotive engines built after 1988. May not provide adequate protection against build-up of engine sludge.
    • Category SD
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most gasoline-powered automotive engines built after 1971. Use in more modern engines may cause unsatisfactory performance or equipment harm
    • Category SC
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most gasoline-powered automotive engines built after 1967.
      Use in more modern engines may cause unsatisfactory performance or equipment harm.
    • Category SB
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most gasoline-powered automotive engines built after 1951.
      Use in more modern engines may cause unsatisfactory performance or equipment harm.
    • Category SA
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Contains no additives. Not suitable for use in most gasoline-powered automotive engines built after 1930. Use in modern engines may cause unsatisfactory performance or equipment harm.

AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (ENGINE OIL LICENSING AND CERTIFICATION SYSTEM)

1220 L Street, NW | Washington, DC 20005-4070 | USA | Sales: 713-964-2662 | Service: 202-682-8516 | Fax: 202-962-4739 |Email: eolcs@api.org | www.api.org/eolcs
Copyright 2010 – American Petroleum Institute, all rights reserved. API, the API logo, the API Service Symbol (Donut), the API Service Symbol with CI-4 PLUS logo and the API Certification
Mark (Starburst) are either trademarks or registered trademarks of API in the United States and/or other countries.
API Communications: 2010-140 | 12.02.10 | PDF

DIESEL ENGINES (FOLLOW YOUR VEHICLE MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS ON OIL PERFORMANCE LEVEL)

    • Category
    • Status
    • Service
    • Category CK-4
    • Status Current
    • Service API Service Category CK-4 describes oils for use in high-speed four-stroke cycle diesel engines designed to meet 2017 model year on-highway and Tier 4 non-road exhaust emission standards as well as for previous model year diesel engines. These oils are formulated for use in all applications with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 500 ppm (0.05% by weight). However, the use of these oils with greater than 15 ppm (0.0015% by weight) sulfur fuel may impact exhaust aftertreatment system durability and/or oil drain interval. These oils are especially effective at sustaining emission control system durability where particulate filters and other advanced aftertreatment systems are used. API CK-4 oils are designed to provide enhanced protection against oil oxidation, viscosity loss due to shear, and oil aeration as well as protection against catalyst poisoning, particulate filter blocking, engine wear, piston deposits, degradation of low- and high-temperature properties, and soot-related viscosity increase. API CK-4 oils exceed the performance criteria of API CJ-4, CI-4 with CI-4 PLUS, CI-4, and CH-4 and can effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories. When using CK-4 oil with higher than 15 ppm sulfur fuel, consult the engine manufacturer for service interval recommendations.
    • Category CJ-4
    • Status Current
    • Service For high-speed four-stroke cycle diesel engines designed to meet 2010 model year on-highway and Tier 4 non-road exhaust emission standards as well as for previous model year diesel engines. These oils are formulated for use in all applications with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 500 ppm (0.05% by weight). However, the use of these oils with greater than 15 ppm (0.0015% by weight) sulfur fuel may impact exhaust aftertreatment system durability and/or drain interval. API CJ-4 oils exceed the performance criteria of API CI-4 with CI-4 PLUS, CI-4, CH-4, CG-4 and CF-4 and can effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories. When using CJ-4 oil with higher than 15 ppm sulfur fuel, consult the engine manufacturer for service interval.
    • Category CI-4
    • Status Current
    • Service Introduced in 2002. For high-speed, four-stroke engines designed to meet 2004 exhaust emission standards implemented in 2002. CI-4 oils are formulated to sustain engine durability where exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is used and are intended for use with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 0.5% weight. Can be used in place of CD, CE, CF-4, CG-4, and CH-4 oils. Some CI-4 oils may also qualify for the CI-4 PLUS designation.
    • Category CH-4
    • Status Current
    • Service Introduced in 1998. For high-speed, four-stroke engines designed to meet 1998 exhaust emission standards. CH-4 oils are specifically compounded for use with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 0.5% weight. Can be used in place of CD, CE, CF-4, and CG-4 oils.
    • Category CG-4
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered automotive engines built after 2009.
    • Category CF-4
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered automotive engines built after 2009.
    • Category CF-2
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered automotive engines built after 2009. Two-stroke cycle engines may have different lubrication requirements than four-stroke engines, so the manufacturer should be contacted for current lubrication recommendations.
    • Category CF
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered automotive engines built after 2009. Later “C” category oils are usually suitable or preferred for diesel automotive engines for which “CF” oils were specified. Older equipment and/or two-stroke diesel engines, especially those calling for monograde products, may however require “CF” category oil.
    • Category CE
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered engines built after 1990.
    • Category CD-II
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered engines built after 1990.
    • Category CD
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered engines built after 1990.
    • Category CC
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered automotive engines built after 1990.
    • Category CB
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered automotive engines built after 1961.
    • Category CA
    • Status Obsolete
    • Service CAUTION: Not suitable for use in most diesel-powered automotive engines built after 1959.

GUIDE TO SAE VISCOSITY GRADES OF MOTOR OIL FOR PASSENGER CARS

Multigrade oils such as SAE 5W-30 and 10W-30 are widely used because, under all but extremely hot or cold conditions, they are thin enough to flow at low temperatures and thick enough to perform satisfactorily at high temperatures. Note that vehicle requirements may vary.
FOLLOW YOUR VEHICLE MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS ON SAE OIL VISCOSITY GRADE.

  • IF LOWEST EXPECTED OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE IS
  • 0°C (32°F)
  • -18°C (0°F)
  • Below -18°C (0°F)
  • IF LOWEST EXPECTED OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE IS
  • 0W-20, 0W-30, 5W-20, 5W-30, 10W-30, 10W-40, 20W-50
  • 0W-20, 0W-30, 5W-20, 5W-30, 10W-30, 10W-40
  • 0W-20, 0W-30, 5W-20, 5W-30